Locally authored papers of the past 5 days

This is the list of the papers for the past 5 days that include local authors affiliated with Princeton University's Astrophysical Sciences department.

No papers found with local authors on 2024-04-19

Papers with local authors from 2024-04-18

Parameswaran Ajith, Pau Amaro Seoane, Manuel Arca Sedda, Riccardo Arcodia, Francesca Badaracco, Enis Belgacem, Stefano Benetti, Alexey Bobrick, Alessandro Bonforte, Elisa Bortolas, Valentina Braito, Marica Branchesi, Adam Burrows, Enrico Cappellaro, Roberto Della Ceca, Chandrachur Chakraborty, Shreevathsa Chalathadka Subrahmanya, Michael W. Coughlin, Stefano Covino, Andrea Derdzinski, Aayushi Doshi, Maurizio Falanga, Stefano Foffa, Alessia Franchini, Alessandro Frigeri, Yoshifumi Futaana, Oliver Gerberding, Kiranjyot Gill, Matteo Di Giovanni, Ines Francesca Giudice, Margherita Giustini, Philipp Gläser, Jan Harms, Joris van Heijningen, Francesco Iacovelli, Bradley J. Kavanagh, Taichi Kawamura, Arun Kenath, Elisabeth-Adelheid Keppler, Chiaki Kobayashi, Goro Komatsu, Valeriya Korol, N. V. Krishnendu, et al.
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Paper 1 — arXiv:2404.09181
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Paper 1 — arXiv:2404.09181

The Lunar Gravitational-wave Antenna (LGWA) is a proposed array of next-generation inertial sensors to monitor the response of the Moon to gravitational waves (GWs). Given the size of the Moon and the expected noise produced by the lunar seismic background, the LGWA would be able to observe GWs from about 1 mHz to 1 Hz. This would make the LGWA the missing link between space-borne detectors like LISA with peak sensitivities around a few millihertz and proposed future terrestrial detectors like Einstein Telescope or Cosmic Explorer. In this article, we provide a first comprehensive analysis of the LGWA science case including its multi-messenger aspects and lunar science with LGWA data. We also describe the scientific analyses of the Moon required to plan the LGWA mission.

J. C. Costes, J. W. Xuan, A. Vigan, J. Wang, V. D'Orazi, P. Mollière, A. Baker, R. Bartos, G. A. Blake, B. Calvin, S. Cetre, J. Delorme, G. Doppmann, D. Echeveri, L. Finnerty, M. P. Fitzgerald, C. Hsu, N. Jovanovic, R. Lopez, D. Mawet, E. Morris, J. Pezzato, C. L. Phillips, J. Ruffio, B. Sappey, A. Schneeberger, T. Schofield, A. J. Skemer, J. K. Wallace, J. Wang

14 pages, 8 figures

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Paper 55 — arXiv:2404.11523
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Paper 55 — arXiv:2404.11523

Context. High-resolution spectroscopy has the potential to drive a better understanding of the atmospheric composition, physics, and dynamics of young exoplanets and brown dwarfs, bringing clear insights into the formation channel of individual objects. Aims. Using the Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer (KPIC; R = 35,000), we aim to characterize a young brown dwarf HD 984 B. By measuring its C/O and 12CO/13CO ratios, we expect to gain new knowledge about its origin by confirming the difference in the formation pathways between brown dwarfs and super-Jupiters. Methods. We analysed the KPIC high-resolution spectrum (2.29-2.49 {\mu}m) of HD 984 B using an atmospheric retrieval framework based on nested sampling and petitRADTRANS, using both clear and cloudy models. Results. Using our best-fit model, we find C/O = 0.50+0.01-0.01 (0.01 is the statistical error) for HD 984 B which agrees with that of its host star within 1{\sigma} (0.40+0.20-0.20). We also retrieve an isotopolog 12CO/13CO ratio of 98+20-25 in its atmosphere, which is similar to that of the Sun. In addition, HD 984 B has a substellar metallicity with [Fe/H] = -0.62+0.02-0.02. Finally, we find that most of the retrieved parameters are independent of our choice of retrieval model. Conclusions. From our measured C/O and 12CO/13CO, the favored formation mechanism of HD 984 B seems to be via gravitational collapse or disk instability and not core accretion, which is a favored formation mechanism for giant exoplanets with m < 13 MJup and semimajor axis between 10 and 100 au. However, with only a few brown dwarfs with a measured 12CO/13CO ratio, similar analyses using high-resolution spectroscopy will become essential in order to determine planet formation processes more precisely.

Papers with local authors from 2024-04-17

Mikako Matsuura, M. Boyer, Richard G. Arendt, J. Larsson, C. Fransson, A. Rest, A. P. Ravi, S. Park, P. Cigan, T. Temim, E. Dwek, M.J. Barlow, P. Bouchet, G. Clayton, R. Chevalier, J. Danziger, J. De Buizer, I. De Looze, G. De Marchi, O. Fox, C. Gall, R. D. Gehrz, H. L. Gomez, R. Indebetouw, T. Kangas, F. Kirchschlager, R. Kirshner, P. Lundqvist, J.M. Marcaide, I. Martí-Vidal, M. Meixner, D. Milisavljevic, S. Orlando, M. Otsuka, F. Priestley, A.M.S. Richards, F. Schmidt, L. Staveley-Smith, Nathan Smith, J. Spyromilio, J. Vink, Lifan Wang, D. Watson, R. Wesson, J. C. Wheeler, C.E. Woodward, G. Zanardo, D. Alp, D. Burrows
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Paper 6 — arXiv:2404.10042
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Paper 6 — arXiv:2404.10042

JWST/NIRCam obtained high angular-resolution (0.05-0.1''), deep near-infrared 1--5 micron imaging of Supernova (SN) 1987A taken 35 years after the explosion. In the NIRCam images, we identify: 1) faint H2 crescents, which are emissions located between the ejecta and the equatorial ring, 2) a bar, which is a substructure of the ejecta, and 3) the bright 3-5 micron continuum emission exterior to the equatorial ring. The emission of the remnant in the NIRCam 1-2.3 micron images is mostly due to line emission, which is mostly emitted in the ejecta and in the hot spots within the equatorial ring. In contrast, the NIRCam 3-5 micron images are dominated by continuum emission. In the ejecta, the continuum is due to dust, obscuring the centre of the ejecta. In contrast, in the ring and exterior to the ring, synchrotron emission contributes a substantial fraction to the continuum. Dust emission contributes to the continuum at outer spots and diffuse emission exterior to the ring, but little within the ring. This shows that dust cooling and destruction time scales are shorter than the synchrotron cooling time scale, and the time scale of hydrogen recombination in the ring is even longer than the synchrotron cooling time scale. With the advent of high sensitivity and high angular resolution images provided by JWST/NIRCam, our observations of SN 1987A demonstrate that NIRCam opens up a window to study particle-acceleration and shock physics in unprecedented details, probed by near-infrared synchrotron emission, building a precise picture of how a SN evolves.

Litao Zhu, Jie Li, Zhongxiang Wang, Jujia Zhang
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Paper 21 — arXiv:2404.10181
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Paper 21 — arXiv:2404.10181

We report the finding of four changing-look (CL) active galactic nuclei (AGN). We selected these sources due to their potential as interesting targets when considering their relatively-large optical flux variations and related mid-infrared flux variations. To identify their CL feature, we use archival spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) taken at least 8 years ago as well as spectra taken recently from the Transient Name Server (TNS) and with the 2.4-m LiJiang telescope (LJT). We study the sources' spectral changes by fitting and determining the H$_\alpha$ and H$_\beta$ components and verify their CL behavior. When comparing the TNS and/or LJT spectra to the SDSS ones, all four sources showed the appearance of a broad or a stronger broad H$_\alpha$ component and a relatively weak broad H$_\beta$ component. As two of the four sources are established to have a brighter-and-bluer feature in the photometric data, during the time periods in which the TNS and LJT spectra were taken, this feature likely accompanied the turn-on of the broad components. Thus, we suggest that this brighter-and-bluer feature can be used as a criterion for efficiently finding CL sources among previously spectroscopically classified type 2 AGN, such as from among the sources provided by the SDSS.

Papers with local authors from 2024-04-16

Yi-Xian Chen, Douglas N. C. Lin

Accepted to ApJ, comments welcome

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Paper 12 — arXiv:2404.08780
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Paper 12 — arXiv:2404.08780

Gravitational instability in the outskirts of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) disks lead to disk fragmentation and formation of super-massive (several 10^2Msun) stars with potentially long lifetimes. Alternatively, stars can be captured ex-situ and grow from gas accretion in the AGN disk. However, the number density distribution throughout the disk is limited by thermal feedback as their luminosities provide the dominant heating source. We derive equilibrium stellar surface density profiles under two limiting contexts: in the case where the stellar lifetimes are prolonged due to recycling of hydrogen rich disk gas, only the fraction of gas converted into heat is removed from the disk accretion flow. Alternatively, if stellar composition recycling is inefficient and stars can evolve off the main sequence, the disk accretion rate is quenched towards smaller radii resembling a classical star-burst disk, albeit the effective removal rate depends not only on the stellar lifetime, but also the mass of stellar remnants. For AGNs with central Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) masses of \sim 10^6 to 10^8Msun accreting at \sim 0.1 Eddington efficiency, we estimate a total number of 10^3 to 10^5 coexisting massive stars and the rate of stellar mergers to be 10^-3 to 1 per year. We motivate the detailed study of interaction between a swarm of massive stars through hydro and N body simulations to provide better prescriptions of dynamical processes in AGN disks, and to constrain more accurate estimates of the stellar population.

Weishan Zhu, Tian-Rui Wang, Fupeng Zhang, Yi Zheng, Long-Long Feng

11 pages, 7 figures, accepted to ApJ

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Paper 24 — arXiv:2404.09028
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Paper 24 — arXiv:2404.09028

Large-scale cosmic filaments may have played an important role in shaping the properties of galaxies. Meanwhile, cosmic filaments are believed to harbor a substantial portion of the missing baryons at redshift z < 2. To inspect the role of filaments in these issues, many properties of filaments need to be examined, including their lengths, thicknesses, and density profiles. However, measuring some of these properties poses challenges. This study concentrates on estimating filament width/thickness, investigating potential correlations between the local width of filaments and the properties of dark matter halos within filaments. We find that the local width of filaments generally increases with the mass of dark matter halos embedded in filaments per unit length, roughly following a secondorder polynomial, although with notable scatter. We probe and discuss means that may refine our findings. After further verification and improvements, this relation could be applied to filament samples constructed from the observed galaxy distribution, aiding in understanding the roles of cosmic filaments in galaxy evolution and uncovering the missing baryons.

Zhiwei Min, Xu Xiao, Jiacheng Ding, Liang Xiao, Jie Jiang, Donglin Wu, Qiufan Lin, Yin Li, Yang Wang, Shuai Liu, Zhixin Chen, Xiangru Li, Jinqu Zhang, Le Zhang, Xiao-Dong Li

10 pages,9 figures

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Paper 48 — arXiv:2404.09483
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Paper 48 — arXiv:2404.09483

We propose a lightweight deep convolutional neural network (lCNN) to estimate cosmological parameters from simulated three-dimensional DM halo distributions and associated statistics. The training dataset comprises 2000 realizations of a cubic box with a side length of 1000 $h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$, and interpolated over a cubic grid of $300^3$ voxels, with each simulation produced using $512^3$ DM particles and $512^3$ neutrinos . Under the flat $\Lambda$CDM model, simulations vary standard six cosmological parameters including $\Omega_m$, $\Omega_b$, $h$, $n_s$, $\sigma_8$, $w$, along with the neutrino mass sum, $M_\nu$. We find that: 1) within the framework of lCNN, extracting large-scale structure information is more efficient from the halo density field compared to relying on the statistical quantities including the power spectrum, the two-point correlation function, and the coefficients from wavelet scattering transform; 2) combining the halo density field with its Fourier transformed counterpart enhances predictions, while augmenting the training dataset with measured statistics further improves performance; 3) achieving high accuracy in inferring $\Omega_m$, $h$, $n_s$, and $\sigma_8$ by the neural network model, while being inefficient in predicting $\Omega_b$,$M_\nu$ and $w$; 4) compared to the simple random forest network trained with three statistical quantities, lCNN yields unbiased estimations with reduced statistical errors: approximately 33.3\% for $\Omega_m$, 20.0\% for $h$, 8.3\% for $n_s$, and 40.0\% for $\sigma_8$. Our study emphasizes this lCNN-based novel approach in extracting large-scale structure information and estimating cosmological parameters.

Pierrick Verwilghen, Eric Emsellem, Florent Renaud, Milena Valentini, Jiayi Sun, Sarah Jeffreson, Ralf S. Klessen, Mattia C. Sormani, Ashley. T. Barnes, Klaus Dolag, Kathryn Grasha, Fu-Heng Liang, Sharon Meidt, Justus Neumann, Miguel Querejeta, Eva Schinnerer, Thomas G. Williams

22 pages, 17 figures

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Paper 65 — arXiv:2404.09791
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Paper 65 — arXiv:2404.09791

Past studies have long emphasised the key role played by galactic stellar bars in the context of disc secular evolution, via the redistribution of gas and stars, the triggering of star formation, and the formation of prominent structures such as rings and central mass concentrations. However, the exact physical processes acting on those structures, as well as the timescales associated with the building and consumption of central gas reservoirs are still not well understood. We are building a suite of hydro-dynamical RAMSES simulations of isolated, low-redshift galaxies that mimic the properties of the PHANGS sample. The initial conditions of the models reproduce the observed stellar mass, disc scale length, or gas fraction, and this paper presents a first subset of these models. Most of our simulated galaxies develop a prominent bar structure, which itself triggers central gas fuelling and the building of an over-density with a typical scale of 100-1000 pc. We confirm that if the host galaxy features an ellipsoidal component, the formation of the bar and gas fuelling are delayed. We show that most of our simulations follow a common time evolution, when accounting for mass scaling and the bar formation time. In our simulations, the stellar mass of $10^{10}$~M$_{\odot}$ seems to mark a change in the phases describing the time evolution of the bar and its impact on the interstellar medium. In massive discs (M$_{\star} \geq 10^{10}$~M$_{\odot}$), we observe the formation of a central gas reservoir with star formation mostly occurring within a restricted starburst region, leading to a gas depletion phase. Lower-mass systems (M$_{\star} < 10^{10}$~M$_{\odot}$) do not exhibit such a depletion phase, and show a more homogeneous spread of star-forming regions along the bar structure, and do not appear to host inner bar-driven discs or rings.

Papers with local authors from 2024-04-15

Yue Pan, Anirudh Chiti, Alex Drlica-Wagner, Alexander P. Ji, Ting S. Li, Guilherme Limberg, Douglas L. Tucker, Sahar Allam

25 pages, 13 figures, machine-readable Tables 3, 4, 5 in source. Submitted to ApJ. Comments welcome!

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Paper 18 — arXiv:2404.08054
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Paper 18 — arXiv:2404.08054

We conducted an in-depth analysis of candidate member stars located in the peripheries of three ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxy satellites of the Milky Way: Bo\"otes I (Boo1), Bo\"otes II (Boo2), and Segue I (Seg1). Studying these peripheral stars has previously been difficult due to contamination from the Milky Way foreground. We used $u$-band photometry from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to derive metallicities to efficiently select UFD candidate member stars. This approach was validated on Boo1, where we identified both previously known and new candidate member stars beyond five half-light radii. We then applied a similar procedure to Boo2 and Seg1. Our findings hinted at evidence for tidal features in Boo1 and Seg1, with Boo1 having an elongation consistent with its proper motion and Seg1 showing some distant candidate stars, a few of which are along its elongation and proper motion. We find two Boo2 stars at large distances consistent with being candidate member stars. Using a foreground contamination rate derived from the \emph{Besan\c{c}on} Galaxy model, we ascribed purity estimates to each candidate member star. We recommend further spectroscopic studies on the newly identified high-purity members. Our technique offers promise for future endeavors to detect candidate member stars at large radii in other systems, leveraging metallicity-sensitive filters with the Legacy Survey of Space and Time and the new, narrow-band Ca HK filter on DECam.

Mark Dodici, Scott Tremaine

34 pages, 16 figures. Submitted to ApJ. Comments welcome

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Paper 25 — arXiv:2404.08138
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Paper 25 — arXiv:2404.08138

Using the equations of motion from Hill's problem, with added accelerations for different forms of dynamical friction, we provide the (to-date) broadest scale-free study of friction-driven binary formation in gaseous disks and stellar clusters. We focus mainly on binary formation between stellar-mass black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNi), considering both gas dynamical friction from AGN disks and stellar dynamical friction from the nuclear star cluster. We first find simple, dimensionless friction coefficients that approximate the effects of standard models for gas and stellar dynamical friction. We perform extensive simulations of Hill's problem under such friction, and we present a picture of binary formation through encounters between single stars on nearby orbits, as a function of friction parameter, eccentricity, and inclination. Notably, we find that the local binary formation rate is a linear function of the friction coefficient so long as the friction is weak. Due to the dimensionless nature of our model problem, our findings are generalizable to binary formation at all scales (e.g., intermediate-mass black holes in a star cluster, planetesimals in a gaseous disk).